Learning, Training, and Human Performance Glossary
Words beginning with the letter “I” are listed below. For words starting with a different letter, use the below table:
The fourth phase of the Instructional System Design (ADDIE). The instruction is delivered to the learners during this phase.
An instructional design where examples are presented and then followed by the rule. See the section, Approaches to Presenting Information and Examples at van Merriënboer's 4C/ID Model and Instructional Design.
Informal learning means the learner sets the goals and objective, while in a formal learning environment, the training or learning department sets the goals and objectives. The terms formal and informal learning have nothing to do with the formality of the learning, but rather with the direction of who controls the learning objectives and goals.
The delivery of information to enable learning. The process by which knowledge and skills are transferred to students. Instruction applies to both training and education.
The procedures applied to an instructional goal in order to identify the relevant skills and their subordinate skills and information required for a learner to achieve the goal.
An initial estimate of what the instruction should do, and what it should look like.
The philosophy, methodology, and approach used to deliver information. Some courseware aspects include question strategy, level of interaction, reinforcement, and branching complexity.
Clear statements of behavior that learners are to demonstrate as a result of instruction.
A component of the instructional strategy defining a particular means for accomplishing the objective. For example, a traditional instructor led instructional strategy may be accomplished using a classroom discussion, demonstration, a Socratic lecture technique, and practice sessions. Also called "method of instruction".
A self-contained instructional unit that includes one or more learning objectives, appropriate learning materials and methods, and associated criterion-reference measures.
The location and physical characteristics of the area in which instruction takes place. The setting can be in a classroom, laboratory, the field, or workplace location.
A portion of material to which the student makes a response. It is a stage in the instructional process that represents progress in the student's mastery. A task to be taught is broken down into frames, items, or segments (steps). It is assumed that students cannot take later steps in a given sequence before taking the earlier steps and that each segment or item represents a step forward.
The approach used to present information in a manner that achieves learning. Approaches include tutorial, gaming, simulation, etc. Aspects of instructional strategies include the order of presentation, level of interaction, feedback, remediation, testing strategies, and the medium used to present the information.
A formal process for designing training, be it computer-based or traditional instructor-led training. The ISD process includes analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. Also known as System Approach to Training (SAT).
The use of technology (computers, compact disc, interactive media, modem, satellite, teleconferencing, etc.) to support learning.
An individual who gives knowledge or information to learners in a systematic manner by presenting information, directing structured leaning experiences, and managing group discussions and activities.
A learning program facilitated by an instructor, normally in classroom or through a web-based conference system.
Instruction that requires interaction between the learner and a product or service. The product or service should be able to sense and respond in order to maintain the learner's interest, provide practice, and/or reinforce prior learnings.
An umbrella term that includes both computer-based and multimedia training.
A segment of instruction that reviews recent learning to reinforce prior information.
Delivery of educational content via a Web browser over the internet or intranet. It provides links to learning resources outside of the course, such as references, email, bulletin boards, and discussion groups. It is now normally referred to as elearning.
A major section of a lesson designed to establish a common ground between the presenter and students, to capture and hold attention, to outline the lesson and relate it to the overall course, to point out benefits to the student, and to lead the student into the body of the lesson; usually contains attention step, motivation step, and overview. A segment that provides a general statement of the course content, target population, why the student is studying the material, and appropriate motivation to gain the student's attention. Examples are icebreakers.
The testing of a product or service to determine if it meets expectations. Iterations are normally performed using two methods:
- Design Iteration (interpretive) — the iteration is performed to test a learning method, function, feature, etc. of the learning platform to a small set of learners to see if it valid.
- Release Iteration (statistical) — the iteration is released as a product to the business unit or customer. Although it may not be fully completed or functional, the designers believe that it is good enough to be of use to the learners.